Wednesday, June 3, 2020

Having trouble with your psychology paper Get help here!

Having trouble with your psychology paper? Get help here! Having trouble with your psychology paper? Get help here! Writing psychology papers can be rather difficult for many people who have just entered this vast and challenging field. One has to remember while writing psychology papers that there are many experts in the field who will go over the psychology paper. It is therefore essential that the person writing the psychology paper is one hundred percent sure about the paper. Psychology is a field where any claim or statement in the psychology paper should be backed up with adequate proof. This is the reason why in any sample psychology paper, one will be able to find quotes, citations and references to a psychology paper written by some one else. Writing papers in psychology can be very tiring as it needs mastery over the use of the vocabulary related to this field. There are a few things that should be kept in mind while you write a psychology paper. The most important thing is that the subject or any person should be referred to in a particular way so that the study or the literature collection is based on adequate proof. This will also help the reader of the psychology paper understand and relate to the study better. It is essential that the entire psychology paper has substantial proof and justification. There are various psychology papers topics and finding a good psychology paper to refer to before starting your own psychology paper is in fact a very good idea. Not only will this help you get ideas, but also will help you understand how the structure of the paper should be. The person writing a child psychology paper should be even more careful before making it public as there have been instances in the past where certain wrong diagnoses were carried out on children because of an unreliable paper. As this field is a considerably young one, there are still several areas which are unexplored. This, apart from giving a whole lot of restrictions, also provides a lot of opportunities to people who would want to write psychology paper or abortion paper. One must however stick to the normal psychology paper outline before starting to write one.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Christianity And Its Impact On Society - 2278 Words

Catholicism A couple decades after Jesus, the Christian Messiah, died , there came a new religion ,which was appealing because it was one of the first religions to show life after death. This religion was Catholicism. This religion has overcame many obstacles to come at where it is today. Catholicism , the largest self-religion branch in christianity, can be explained through the History of Catholicism, the faith of Catholicism, and the structure of the mass and church. The history of Catholicism was long and persecuted religion, that has a history dating back to the times of Jesus. The Catholics believe that Catholicism that traces all the way back to Jesus of Nazareth.(Roman Catholicism,pg.1) According to the gospels , persecution,†¦show more content†¦500, the Church flourished due to new popularity(Ries ..pg.12) Charlemange was crowned the first Holy Roman Empire by Pope Leo the third.(Ries,pg.14) Pope Gregory told the monks of England to burn all Idols.( Ries,pg.12)Many Kings who were german became Holy Roman Emperor ( Ries, pg.14) The Great Schism was when the church of christianity officially split, though the Eastern branches of the Church had long been divided on religious beliefs .(Ries,pg.17) Pope Gregory VII made and reinstated the papal Primacy( Ries,pg.14) Pope Gregory VII stopped kings from appointing bishops with the treaty known as the Concordat at Worms.( Ries,p14.) The Faith of Catholics ranges in a wide variety and is based on the stories in the bible , and explains life’s most meaningful questions . Catholics believes that Adam and Eve created original sin, which now all people are born with.(The essentials of†¦, p.1) For it to be a moral sin , it have to be a grave matter, full knowledge, and deliberate consent. (the essentials of ...,p.11) A grave matter is when you deliberately do something evil. (the essentials of..., p.11) Full knowledge is when you do something with all knowing in mind.(the essentials of†¦, p.11) Deliberate consent is when you freely chose to do something evil. (the essentials of†¦, p.11) A venial sin is a small sin that can be saved with blessing

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Management under Uncertainty for Cocksure- myassignmenthelp.com

Question: Discuss about theManagement under Uncertainty for Cocksure Mentality. Answer: Reflective Essay: Introduction: Overconfidence has to do with the presupposition and unnecessary consideration in the abilities of one. Certain people are gifted with several talents along with the abilities; it is generally serving the people in trying and toning down on the ways they expose these to some others as people might be very judgmental. Therefore, overconfidence possesses cocksure mentality that is desirable in the current society. Annotated Bibliography was the theme of the group activity and we came up with the idea of analyzing the managerial overconfidence and the ways it can create challenges within the working environment. From a very tender age, I have heard that confidence is good but overconfidence might lead to jeopardize or hamper the working environment. I really detest the egotistical individuals as they possess the mentality of knowing-it-all and having a greater disregard about the opinions of the other people along with the contributions in the regular events of our lives. In this way most of the people generally shun away from these kind of individuals as they are likely to be egocentric and self-centered. Managing overconfidence people within team is a challenging job. It is about putting the right people in right job and control the people who might at times jeopardize the situation with their level of overexcitement and overconfidence (Kiyotaki Miyakawa, 2016). It was decided who would be doing what like filtering of the articles, selecting one appropriate, analyzing and initiating a report for the same. Our topic was managing overconfidence sow e decided to keep this as the main agenda of our team too, to have a feel of what it takes to deal such situations as we have one or two people who does possess overconfidence in them. It is interesting that people having overconfidence will never accept it themselves that they are overconfident about something. They would try and impose their suggestions and decisions on others as they think they know better than the others present. This would take into account two theories which would enable us in better understanding the ways of managing overconfidence like the Fishers Theory and Functional perspective. The theories that would be dealt with were mentioned after concerning the members of the team. Analysis: Fishers Theory: One of the important theories that come to mind in the segment of group decision making is Fishers theory of decision emergence. This theory of decision emergence takes in four phases that a group generally goes through in the process of decision making. As per Fisher the allotment of various tasks along with the decision making modifications a team and when being managed in booming manner, it makes the team stronger (Hsu, Novoselov Wang, 2014). In a team there generally exist individuals having different mindset and different level of confidence. The first phase within this theory is the orientation phase. It is the time when the team members ascertain relationships but also contains tensions. Effective level of communication is significant within this phase but it is also intricate because of the fact that the team members might know each other in trusting one another well enough. This happens within organizations too where groups are formed, members are brought in but trust is something that is developed over a period of time. This happened with this team too. We met; we came to know about each other and the kind of personality we are and the ways things are going to pan out when we sit down for the serious business. The way we talk, the way we communicate we each other brings about the level of confidence and attitude we possess. Next is the conflict phase where new ideas fly like anything. This is the phase where new ideas are being discussed and there might exist significant tension as the proposers along with the champions of the unconventional advancement intermingle. Is there exists a natural order within the team emerging, then a stronger team can result. We involved everybody in this, as we needed the maximum number of ideas so that we had options in filtering one that the other groups might not think of and we end up analyzing something that is unique and important from the perspective of the organization and Managing Overconfidence is one such topic. The next phase is the stage of emergence, where the result of the conflict takes into appearance. During this phase some of the people require to alleviate their situation that should not seem dominating. One might be good in something and another might be average, as it is a group activity people within the team should put the interests of the team above the personal goals (Tenney, Poole Diener, 2016). People should help each other within a team. The final phase is the reinforcement chapter where all the members required committing to the plans and the objectives, whether they consent with them personally. We agreed to the plan we created involving everybody and initiated the process. Functional Perspective: Hirokawa and Gouran were convinced with the idea that group interaction brings about positive effect on the final outcome. This prediction takes into account the assumptions which the members of the group care about the concern stated to be sensibly intelligent, facing a task that is challenging, calling for fresh ideas and precise thinking (Hilary et al., 2016). If the group fails in satisfying the requirement of the task, it is in all probability that the personal prejudice would be driving the choice instead of the reason. There should not be any confusion related to the person who is leading the group or taking the calls in case of emergency. Critical Discussion: It is important to deal with people within the team who are overconfident and it is important to understand the kind of overconfidence one is dealing with within the team. Sometimes these overconfident people fly too high and being a member of the team it is important in bringing them back. It is important to let them know that that nobody is perfect in the world. The model of bounded rationality would take in admitting the fact that the rational manager or the group leader does not possess the absolute information along with the optimal choices that are not always needed. The rational behavior of the humans is being shaped by the cutters whose both the blades are the construction of the environments of task and the computational potentials of the actor. Bounded rationality is faceted by the activities of satisficing and searching. We had lot of options while searching for the articles to evaluate and analyze the things present. The searching process needs to be made easier through the detection of the regularities in the environment of the task. It is important for the main members of the group leader in assessing the alternatives before making the final call on the activity. Overconfident members needs to be talked with frankly when coming up with plans with even the overconfident appreciating the sounding board and one if able to provide that and illustrate what the team is looking for, one is likely to make them questions their own decisions (Lazear, 2016). It is important for the team members in keeping their options and alternatives open while dealing with the overconfident members. If one of the associates is stated to be overconfident, it sometimes becomes frustrating to encounter the same on regular basis, but members surely can deal with this is through avoiding of the same. Overconfident members would give much emphasis on the others to take up their ideas and suggestions, though it is important for the other team members to make them understand that they cannot be right all the time and that everyone should be heard proper justification is required before taking up on any task. Recommendations: It is important to deal with people in the team who are of overconfident nature which has been the agenda, as it jeopardizes the overall situation most of the time. This research that has been taken into consideration was restricted in many senses. This was the first time we as a group indulged in such decision making activity and there were bound to be some mistakes through which we have learnt not to repeat them in the near future. Letting a team down for the individual conflict and objectives is not what is required for teams indulged in project work, especially when we ourselves are doing a research on the papers related to managing overconfidence. Overconfidence is something that if not controlled or avoided might bring about conflict among the team members jeopardizing the overall work process. It is important on the part of the managers or the team leaders to keep the interactions brief with the ones oozing with overconfidence and which would ensure minimal disruption in both life and work. It is also important in showing empathy for forming a bridge with an employee. This would help in communicating in more efficient manner that there is an issue and he/she requires working on the displayed attitude at the place of work. It has been found during this task that overconfident team members at times engage in discussions of needless nature and prolonging the time of the meeting. When we rejected a common topic that was suggested by one of our overconfident member he was adamant on why we were not taking up that topic and might end up having issues later on. It is important not to conciliate on the timings of the meetings and staying calm in making sure the deliverables remain on track. Reflective Essay: Introduction: With the first article done and dusted, it was time for the second one with more filtering required on the same topic. The group is more settled under the present circumstances and group members know well what to expect from whom. Overconfident members have been curbed down a bit though such traits are hard to resist. At times they become over enthusiastic on certain things that lead to more confusion and jeopardization of the overall work. Bringing everybody together and going along with the same process should not have created any confusion and commotion, but with one or two overconfident members in the kitty things were bound to get messy (Hoffman Burks, 2017). Roles were reversed so that everyone within the team felt themselves to be an integral part of the team. For the second article we thought of going for the Managing of CEO Overconfidence as it was important to understand and feel that overconfidence can come from any part of the management and situations might be different for different people depending on the position and level it is coming from. It was important for us as a team to understand even the big bosses can have overconfidence which at times might create challenging situation for the whole group. The theories taken into account for this reflection is the rational decision making where alternatives are given importance like we did while evaluating the various work process of the group task along with the functional perspectives of the team that s significant while clearing out the roles of every team member before the task so that there is no confusion. Analysis: There are certain theories related to decision making but in this part we thought of stating the rationality in decision making that is said to be effective in the process of making decision that must be rational (Navis Ozbek, 2017). However, it was important for us to understand the true meaning of rationality. As a group were we being rational with our approach. We found out that the true meaning of rationality was in making an attempt in reaching the goals of the group or the organization in systematic manner. Each member within the team should have relevant information about the topic we are dealing and of the roles of each of the team member needs to be clear so that there should not be any conflict of roles. People who have been deciding rationally are the ones who reach their goals in the most systematic of manners. We were trying for the same. We were very much on course for systematic thinking so that there does not arise any sort of conflict within the team members that mi ght dampen the spirits and endangers the overall process of the work process. Rational Decision making The rationality of decision making is generally based on the 4 stages or steps in making the rational decision which are stated to be gaining relevant information, assessing the same along with evaluating and making choices (Hsieh, Bedard Johnstone, 2014). There exists two steps that requires following by either the individuals or the groups while making rational decision making which are: Searching for the alternatives: Given the fact that we knew what our objectives are, the first step in the process of decision making should be searching for the alternatives (Tsai et al., 2017). Searching for the alternatives is mainly been based on the concept of restrictive factor. The principle of the restrictive factor is in identifying and overcoming the factors that stand critically in the direction of goals, like we had in managing the overconfident nature of people that might have resulted in team conflict and jeopardized the overall work process of the group activity (Ancarani, Di Mauro DUrso, 2016). As a team and also an individual it is important to go for the best course of action. Evaluation of the alternatives: The next step in the process of decision making is in evaluating and picking one that would be contributing best to the goals of the group or the organization. While selecting the articles for the group activity work we were searching for all the best alternatives that we could go for incase we land ourselves into trouble while going for assessing of the articles (Libby Rennekamp, 2016). Functional Perspectives: We did discuss on this while writing the first reflective part and decided on mentioning the same again in this part too. This task was challenging for the purpose that the topic was bit new to us; we came together for the first time and had to manage different personalities down the course of action. Confusion should not exist within the team for attaining the result in better manner. Every members role within the team should be clear so that there is no confusion at the end of the day on who is doing what. Critical Discussion: It is key in dealing with people having overconfidence; something that I have noticed does not lessen within a course of time. Sometimes these people find it difficult in understanding the things going around them and that they need to control themselves for the betterment of others. They cannot be perfect all the time, and that is what we decided on imposing over them before they could on us with their ideas and suggestions. We have dealt with the team members showing signs of overconfidence before to when we came together for the first time. Things have changed a bit, they have controlled their emotions to a greater extent and things have started becoming easier for the group. I understood it was about time we look for better results and overcome the challenges we had as a team and motivate ourselves to surpass the others. We have tried and had lot of communication with them and have been stern on the things they require to do and that what are the expectations from them. Atleast one of the team members understood what the team requires out of him and curbed down his emotions a great deal like in the first meeting he was jumping around, confronting to what others were saying and always wanting to impose their ideas and sayings on the others even if they would not like whatever they have to say. Recommendations: Under no circumstances is it feasible in letting the team down through regular conflicts among the team members if they fail to manage overconfidence. Moreover, we had to show some sense and maturity in dealing with time and members for the fact we were researching on a paper that did ask about managing of the overconfidence nature of individuals at workplace. We have implemented in keeping things easy and brief while dealing with the overconfident members and it did work a great deal. We were not allowing any fake discussions or illegal talks with the overconfident employees because they seem to thrive on all those sort of things. We found these overconfident ones having trouble in taking rejections and that is when they seem to go out of control. We curbed that as well through regular meetings and assigning them things they are best at. References: Ancarani, A., Di Mauro, C., DUrso, D. (2016). Measuring overconfidence in inventory management decisions.Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management,22(3), 171-180. Hoffman, M., Burks, S. V. (2017).Worker Overconfidence: Field Evidence and Implications for Employee Turnover and Returns from Training(No. w23240). National Bureau of Economic Research. Hsieh, T. S., Bedard, J. C., Johnstone, K. M. (2014). CEO Overconfidence and Earnings Management. Kiyotaki, F., Miyakawa, T. (2016). Delaying promotion to persuade overcon?dent employees. Lazear, E. P. (2016).Overconfidence and Occupational Choice(No. w21921). National Bureau of Economic Research. Libby, R., Rennekamp, K. M. (2016). Experienced financial managers' views of the relationships among self-serving attribution bias, overconfidence, and the issuance of management forecasts: A replication.Journal of Financial Reporting,1(1), 131-136. Navis, C., Ozbek, O. V. (2017). Why Context Matters: Overconfidence, Narcissism, and the Role of Objective Uncertainty in Entrepreneurship.Academy of Management Review,42(1), 148-153. Ou, A. Y., Tsui, A. S., Kinicki, A. J., Waldman, D. A., Xiao, Z., Song, L. J. (2014). Humble chief executive officers connections to top management team integration and middle managers responses.Administrative Science Quarterly,59(1), 34-72. Tenney, E. R., Poole, J. M., Diener, E. (2016). Does positivity enhance work performance?: Why, when, and what we dont know.Research in Organizational Behavior,36, 27-46. Tsai, F. S., Lin, C. H., Lin, J. L., Lu, I. P., Nugroho, A. (2017). Generational diversity, overconfidence and decision-making in family business: A knowledge heterogeneity perspective.Asia Pacific Management Review.

Sunday, April 19, 2020

Information Systems Research Proposal Essay Example

Information Systems Research Proposal Essay Information system is the set of the technical, program and organizational software and staff which are aimed at the quality and rapid supply of people with the required information. The modern age of information has made the life of people dynamic and the most valuable resource nowadays is information, because with its help people learn about the new things, required for their self0development, enrichment and the general development of the society. Information systems are closely connected with the rapid development of the computer technologies and the computer networks. In the narrower meaning information systems are exactly the computer software and technologies which are involved into the creation, storage and transmission of information, but of course the explanation is broader and includes everything and everyone who serves for the improvement of the work of the system. According to the purpose, task, architecture and functions information systems are divided into various types. First of all they are divided into the desktop and distributed information systems. Desktop IS are the systems whose servers are located on the single computer, while the distributed IS has its server on several computers. The distributed IS are divided into file-server and client-server. Client-server IS are divided into two-tier and multi-tier systems. So the architecture is quite complicated and every level of IS has its own task: storage of information, processing, analysis of data, etc. IS are divided into the personal, group and corporate on the basis of the number and quality of the operations which they can fulfill. The personal IS is able to solve a few tasks for the single person; the group one is aimed at the serving to the selected group of people of the single department; the corporate IS is the broadest IS which embraces all the information processes of the whole company. We will write a custom essay sample on Information Systems Research Proposal specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Information Systems Research Proposal specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Information Systems Research Proposal specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Information systems are very important for the functioning of every organization and the student should observe the problem from his own point of view, choose the interesting points for the research, predict the results, suggest the methods and literature for the research and compose a well-analyzed logical research proposal which would present information systems in the alternative light. The student is supposed to persuade the professor in the success of the topic and the structure and content of the paper should be up-to-date, creative and challenging. It is not quite easy to prepare a good research proposal without possessing rich writing experience, so every student is able to join the website and read a free information systems research proposal example constructed by the qualified writer. It is a big plus that one has the chance to look through a free information systems research proposal sample and improve the quality of his own paper. At EssayLib.com writing service you can order a custom research proposal on Information Systems topics. Your research paper proposal will be written from scratch. We hire top-rated PhD and Master’s writers only to provide students with professional research proposal help at affordable rates. Each customer will get a non-plagiarized paper with timely delivery. Just visit our website and fill in the order form with all proposal details: Enjoy our professional research proposal writing service!

Saturday, March 14, 2020

Artificial Intelligence and Technology of the Future essays

Artificial Intelligence and Technology of the Future essays The technology of the future will do things that seem "mad" to most of us today. Our ability to create artificial intelligence is increasing exponentially. In the labs of prestigious institutions across the country, scientists try to create a computer that will replace the brain. This futuristic technology may not be far off; however, it faces harsh opposition by people afraid of what they don't understand. The idea of living past my short window of mortal life is wonderful. I look forward to seeing Dr. Hans Moravec, and other brilliant scientists like him create immortality, for anyone bold enough to accept it. As my favorite band 311 says in their song Evolution, "If it's understood it could be used for good and would if you will believe in all we can conceive." Hans Moravec, the senior research scientist at Carnegie-Mellon's Mobile Robot Laboratory, wrote, "We are on a threshold of a change in the universe comparable to the transition from nonlife to life"(The Conscious Reader, 500). Moravec seeks to create "robotic immortality" for everyone. His idea involves making an exact computer replica of an individual's brain and transferring it into a robotic body. The downloaded brain would have the same thought process and memories as its mortal counterpart. In essence, you would be the same person, in a state of the art robotic body. Moravec is not alone, Marvin Minsky, Donner Professor of Science at MIT, also accepts the idea of artificial intelligence. Minsky is researching the brain. He is attempting to uncover the mystery, behind the operation of the billions of brain cells that allow us to think and remember. Minsky says, "If a person is like a machine, once you get a wiring diagram of how he works, you can make copies" (The Conscious Rea der, 499). If successful, Moravec, Minsky, and others like them, will indeed create the computer brain, making robotic immortality, a reality. Is it right to "play" God? ...

Thursday, February 27, 2020

The aftermath of the global financial crisis 2007-2009 Essay

The aftermath of the global financial crisis 2007-2009 - Essay Example Consequently, liquidity became common; this facilitated the concept of innovative finance (D’Arista and Griffith-Jones, 2008), putting more funds into risky investments. Sub-prime loans were easily available before the emergence of financial crisis. Udell (2009) explains that the sub-prime loans were easily available in America. Basically, this type of loan is given to those people who do not have positive credit worthiness. And, banks and other financial institutions do not provide loans and other short-term credit facilities to those people or institutions who have negative credit worthiness or who are unable to repay loan. In the United States of America, before the beginning of financial crisis, many were unable to receive loans due to these factors and they resort to sub-prime loans. Initially, there were a few people and small institutions were giving sub-prime loans. With the passage of time, from local to multi-national banks and other financial institutions started gi ving sub-prime loans. Since higher interest rates were charged on the sub-prime loans, many banks and financial institutions saw it as an opportunity to earn more profit. The attacks of 9/11 were economically dangerous as well. The magnitude of attacks was sufficiently negatively on the economy of America. The entire American economy was damaged; the Fed came under pressure to economically manage the situation and devise such economic short-term policies to minimise the impacts of 9/11 on the American economy. With this aim in mind, Greenspan of Fed decided to reduce the interest rate to the level of 1 percent. The reduction of interest rates further allowed ordinary Americans to avail the benefit of interest rate reduction. This reduction further directly increased the risk of default and bankruptcy. Savings of developing countries further aggravated the availability of excessive liquidity. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, many developing countries poured their funds into the dif ferent American banks and other financial institutions. As a result, banks and financial institutions faced the problem of excessive liquidity. Normally banks face shortage of liquidity, and to fulfil their daily requirements, banks try different means to obtain funds. But, before the financial crisis, most of the banks and financial institutions were filled with the excessive liquidity. Now, banks were required to invest the excessive liquidity for the purpose of earning returns. The inflow of excessive liquidity was so huge that many banks totally compromised on the risks associated with different types of investments. Banks and other financial institutions were desperate to utilise the availability of excessive liquidity at the cost of safe and secure returns. Banks and other financial institutions did not give an appropriate consideration before going to invest; even they overlooked the possibility of default, which could shake their commercial existence. Banks and other financi al institutions started lending to those individuals and institutions that were lacking to fulfil the requirements of creditworthiness. Consequently, these factors contributed to the inception of global financial crisis, which did not remain within the boundary of the United States of America, but spread to other countries. Many shortcomings did exist in the risk management policies of banks. Too little understanding of exposure to

Tuesday, February 11, 2020

The various activities within a company should be coordinated by the Essay

The various activities within a company should be coordinated by the preparation of plans of actions for future periods. Thes - Essay Example This paper compares three basic terms that are planning, control and budgeting and describes the process involved in preparing a master budget and behavioral issues that a firm may face while preparing the budget. Planning, Control and Budgeting A successful organization prepares both short and long term planning. Weygandt, Kimmel and Kieso, 2009, p. 388) pointed that planning is the process of establishing enterprise wide objectives because plans not only set forth the objectives of the company but also the proposed ways of accomplishing them. As Davies and Pain (2002, p. 410) described, planning refers to the establishment of objectives and the formulation, evaluation and selection of the policies, strategies and tactics that are required for achieving the established objectives. Planning includes long term planning or commonly termed as strategic planning and short term planning. ... 410). Long term planning involves strategic planning over two or more years and the identification of the basic strategy that the firm may follow and the gaps between future needs and present capabilities of the firm (Drury, 2006, p. 426). As long-term plans include looking in to future for two or several years, the plans may become uncertain, imprecise and subject to change. Long term planning or strategic planning expresses certain steps required to achieve an organization’s goals because it considers intermediate and distant future. Long-range plans give detail about major capital investments required for maintaining present facilities, increasing capacity, diversifying products or procurement and developing markets. Long-range plans may aim at cost control or increasing market share for duration of three or more years (Hilton, Maher and Selto, 2005, p. 597). Budgeting involves the coordination of both financial and non-financial planning with a view to satisfy organisation al goals and objectives. It involves planning for future profitability because maintaining long-term profitability is very critical to organizational objectives. Kimmel, Weygandt and Kieso (2008, p. 1010) emphasized that budgeting and long-term planning are not the same. The main difference between them is the time period involved. Maximum length of a budget is one year and therefore budget is a kind of short-term plan. Other major differences between the long-term planning and budgeting are the emphasis and the amounts of details presented. Budgeting is meant for achieving certain short-term goals like meeting annual profit goals whereas long-term planning is meant to identify long-range goals, find and select effective strategies and develop policies and plans to implement the